Carbon dioxide is the gas that produces the bubbles in the first place. It's silently waiting to be released, which happens when we open a bottle or can of beer. The nucleation points are what form the bubbles and those bubbles eventually separate from the nucleation points. These bubbles rise in a constant flow toward the top of the glass.
A nucleated glass will keep the beer bubbling in the glass. If you love those bubbles, then get a set of core glasses and try your favorite beer in one compared to a regular beer glass. If you want to go deeper into beer carbonation, Mammoth Beer explains it well in an article entitled “How brewers carbonate beer”.